Tim Baird, PhD
I'm interested in the interactions between environmental conservation, economic development, and social change - in a word, sustainability. My research in rural Africa has examined how vulnerable communities are adapting to protected areas, engaging a globalizing world, and embracing new technologies. It is a great privilege to work with such welcoming and resilient families and communities.
I'm interested in how social networks change, how engagement works, and how people respond to disruption. This work relates to scholarship in human-environment interactions, human ecology, resilience studies, and student-centered learning.
Associate Professor Department of Geography
Faculty Principal Creativity and Innovation District Living-Learning Community
Senior Fellow Institute for Creativity, Arts, and Technology
ICAT Playdate, October 2021: Space and Place at the Creativity and Innovation District Living-Learning Community (start @ 4:56)
Music: Bosenga by Orchéstre Baka de Gbiné
May 2022 happy to share Pink Time at The College of New Jersey 22nd Annual Instructional Tech Workshop
May 2022 pumped for new NSF grant to study Indoor Geography at the CID (i.e., Building Ecology)
May 2022 delighted to announce that Mark Villarreal has successfully defended his MS thesis
Feb 2022 fun interview on Hokie Talk (Spotify) with Aziz Malouche on CID, travel and Pink Time
Dec 2021 exciting visit to the CID from Andrew Kim from Steelcase, Inc.
Oct 2021 wonderful visit to the CID from Allison Hartman Adams and Simon Adams
Oct 2021 happy to discuss CID at ICAT Playdate
Sep 2021 new paper on women, agriculture, and phones in Tanzania in JGAFS
Aug 2021 opening of the Creativity and Innovation District
Aug 2021 so happy to welcome Geoffrey Otieno (BA, Kenyatta University) to our MS program
Jun 2021 new paper on phones and wrong numbers in Ecology and Society
Jun 2021 story in theconversation.com about wrong numbers
Peer-reviewed publications (*students)
Lee, E. and T.D. Baird (2021) Roles of Autonomous Motivation, Individualism, and Instructor Support in Student-Centered Learning in South Korea and the United States. Educational Technology International 22 (2) 285-309. (open access link) (pdf)
Quandt, A., J.D. Salerno, T.D. Baird, J.T. McCabe, E. Xu, J.E. Herrick, J. Hartter (2021) Mobile phone use and agricultural impacts among female smallholder farmers in Tanzania. Journal of Gender, Agriculture and Food Security 6 (1) 43-54. (open access link)
Baird, T.D., J.T. McCabe, E. Woodhouse, I. Rumas, S. Sankeni, G.O. Saitoti (2021) Mobile phones and wrong numbers: how Maasai agro-pastoralists form and use accidental social ties in East Africa. Ecology and Society 26 (2) 41. (open access link) (public lecture) (theconversation.com)
Baird, T.D. (2021) Applying the Own it, Learn it, Share it framework to the flexible Pink Time assignment to scaffold student autonomy online or in person. Educational Technology Research and Development 69 (1) 105-108. (link) (view-only link)
Quandt, A., J.D. Salerno, J.C. Neff, T.D. Baird, J.E. Herrick, J.T. McCabe, E. Xu, J. Hartter (2020) Mobile phone use is associated with higher smallholder agricultural productivity in Tanzania, East Africa. PLoS ONE 15 (8) e0237337. (open access link)
*Summers, K.H, T.D. Baird, E. Woodhouse, M.E. Christie, J.T. McCabe, F. Terta, N. Peter (2020) Mobile phones and women's empowerment in Maasai communities: How men shape women's social relations and access to phones. Journal of Rural Studies 77: 126-137. (open access link) (VT News)
Baird, T.D., D.J. Kniola, J. Hartter, K.A. Carlson, S. Rogers, D. Russell and J.C. Tise (2020) Adapting Pink Time to Promote Self-Regulated Learning Across Course and Student Types. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 32 (1) 49-63. (open access link)
*Fox, D.N., T.D. Baird, T.D., M.J. Stern, and S.P. Prisley (2019) Where mobile groups settle: spatial patterns and correlates of Maasai pastoralist sedentarization in northern Tanzania. Applied Geography 112: 102086. (link)
*Jensen, D., T.D. Baird, and G. Blank (2018) New Landscapes of Conflict: Land Use Competition at the Urban-Rural Fringe. Landscape Research 44 (4): 418-429. (link)
Santo, A., K. Guillozet, M.G. Sorice, T.D. Baird, S.A. Gray, C.J. Donlan and C.B. Anderson (2017) Examining private landowners' knowledge systems of invasive species. Human Ecology 45 (4): 449-462. (link)
Baird, T.D. and J. Hartter (2017) Livelihood diversification, mobile phones and information diversity in northern Tanzania. Land Use Policy 67: 460-471. (link) (vtnews.vt.edu) (theconversation.com)
Baird, T.D., B.C. Chaffin and D.J. Wrathall (2017) A Disturbance Innovation Hypothesis: Perspectives from Human and Physical Geography. The Geographical Journal 183 (2): 201-208. (link) (pdf)
*Lewis, A.L., T.D. Baird and M.G. Sorice (2016) Mobile phone use and human-wildlife conflict in northern Tanzania. Environmental Management 58 (1): 117-129. (link) (motherboard.com) (rewrite.com) (durablehuman.com) (theconversation.com)
Stern, M.J. and T.D. Baird (2015) Trust ecology and the resilience of natural resources institutions. Ecology and Society 29 (2): 14. (open access link) (wholeterrain.com)
Baird, T.D. (2015) Conservation implications of the diffusion of Christian religious ideals in rural Africa. Population and Environment 36 (4): 373-399. (link)
Baird, T.D. (2015) Comment on Who Helps and Why? Cooperative Networks in Mpimbwe by C. Kasper and M. Borgerhoff Mulder. Current Anthropology. 56 (5): 701-732. (link)
Baird, T.D., D.J. Kniola, A.L. Lewis* and S.B. Fowler (2015) Pink Time: Evidence of self regulated learning and academic motivation among undergraduate students. Journal of Geography 114 (4): 146-157. (link) (theubiquitouslibrarian.com)
MacKenzie, C.A., T.D. Baird, J. Hartter (2014) Use of Single Large or Several Small Policies as Strategies to Manage People-Park Interactions. Conservation Biology 28 (6): 1645-1656. (link)
Baird, T.D. and C.L. Gray (2014) Livelihood Diversification and Shifting Social Networks of Exchange: A Social Network Transition? World Development 60: 14-30. (link) (research.vt.edu) (theconversation.com)
Baird, T.D. (2014) Conservation and Unscripted Development: Proximity to park associated with development and financial diversity. Ecology and Society 19 (1): 4. (open access link)
Baird, T.D. and P.W. Leslie (2013) Conservation as Disturbance: Upheaval and Livelihood Diversification near Tarangire National Park. Global Environmental Change 23 (5): 1131-1141. (link) (research.vt.edu)
Baird, T.D. (2013) Parks and Place Fragments: The Implications of Biodiversity Protection in Tanzania and Indiana. African Geographical Review 32 (1): 100-104. (link)
Baird, T.D., P.W. Leslie, and J.T. McCabe (2009) Effect of Conservation on Local Perceptions of Risk and Behavioral Response. Human Ecology 37 (4): 463-474. (link)
Miller, T.R., T.D. Baird, C. Littlefield, G.P. Kofinas, F.S. Chapin III, C.L. Redman (2008) Epistemological pluralism: Reorganizing interdisciplinary research. Ecology and Society 13 (2). (open access link)
Baird, T.D. (2015) Motivate the Future. Pedagogy in Practice. Center for Instructional Development and Educational Research, Virginia Tech, 2-4. (link)
GRANTS & HONORS
National Science Foundation, 2022-2026, Human-Environment and Geographical Sciences (HEGS). Building Ecology: Examining Space-Place Dynamics in a Shared Indoor Environment. T. Baird (PI), N. Abaid, D. Franusich, T. Pingel, E. Tural, T. Upthegrove, D. Kniola, BCS-2149229. $349,703
National Science Foundation, 2017-2022, Geography and Spatial Sciences Program (GSS) & Cultural Anthropology Program. SBE-RCUK: The effects of mobile phones on gendered social networks, decision making and vulnerability. T. Baird (PI), E. Woodhouse, J.T. McCabe, BCS-1660428. $330,034 (+ £40,051 from RCUK)
Steelcase, Inc., 2018-2020, Active Learning Center Grant: Integrating Social Science and Sensing Technologies to Examine Active Learning Environments. T. Baird (PI), D. Kniola, P. Tarazaga, B. Knapp, V. Thomas, R. Wynne, L. Fuller (approx. $67,000)
National Geographic Society, 2013-2014, Committee for Research and Exploration: Texting the Last Great Herds: Maasai Social Networks and Land Use in the Age of the Cell Phone. T. Baird (PI) and J. Hartter, CRE #9293-13. $17,720
Fulbright-Hays Fellowship, 2009-2010, U.S. Department of Education. Wildlife Conservation and the Role of Inter-household Exchange in Social-Ecological Resilience. $38,106
National Science Foundation, 2009-2010, Doctoral Dissertation Research: Wildlife Conservation and the Role of Inter-household Exchange in Social-Ecological Resilience. P. Leslie (PI) and T. Baird, BCS-0927173. $12,000
2019 Design Award (Gold, Silver), European Product Design Awards (Kizingo design team)
2019 Design Award (Silver), 12th Annual IDA awards (Kizingo design team)
2013 Nystrom Dissertation Award (Finalist), AAG
2012 Student Paper Award, Cultural & Political Ecology Specialty Group, AAG
2012 Student Paper Award, Africa Specialty Group, AAG
2009 Dissertation Research Grant, AAG
Select Internal Honors
2022 Alumni Award for Excellence in International Education, Office of the Provost, Virginia Tech
2021 Favorite Faculty Award, Division of Student Affairs, Virginia Tech
2018 XCaliber Award, Office of the Provost, Virginia Tech
2017 Favorite Faculty Award, Division of Student Affairs, Virginia Tech
Seeking Sustainability I: GEOG 1115 / Every fall / syllabus / general education media
Seeking Sustainability II: GEOG 1116 / Every spring / syllabus
Africa Together: GEOG 4984 / Spring 2021 / syllabus
Human-Environment Interactions: GEOG 5984 (Grad class) / Spring 2022 / syllabus
The Pink Time Assignment
Pink Time is a radical assignment to
promote course engagement and
learning. Check out our website
... or my talk on Pink Time.
The Creativity and Innovation District Living Learning Program
I'm proud to serve as the Inaugural Faculty Principal of the CID. Our community includes three Living Learning Communities (Rhizome, Studio 72, and Innovate) as well as student athletes. I live with my family in our spectacular residence hall which includes, maker spaces, teaching studios, a rehearsal and performance hall, an outdoor classroom, and many informal lounges.
The BUILD Research Project
(Boosting University Infrastructure for Learning + Discovery)
With support from Steelcase, Inc. and several groups at Virginia Tech (ICAT, ISCE, CNRE, CLAHS, SOE), our team has been experimenting to strategies from engineering and the social sciences to examine patterns of movement in formal and informal learning environments (e.g., classrooms, labs, study lounges, etc.) and how these patterns are related to student engagement and collaboration. These videos show preliminary analysis of "students and faculty" in an active learning computer lab. (OpenPose video (left) created by David Franusich, ICAT).
In the podcast below, I discuss strategies for teaching GenEd courses and design of our interdisciplinary Pathways to Sustainability Minor.
Seeking Sustainability - by the Active Learning Curation Program
In 2017, Alice Rogers, who was the manager of the ALCP at VT, created this wonderful video exhibit of my Seeking Sustainability class. The goal of the project was to examine how active learning is working in VT's new classroom building. I'm so grateful for the work that she did to look carefully at our class and tell a thoughtful and engaging story. Check out her work:
Geoffrey Otieno, Kenyatta University, Kenya (BA), changing Maasai social networks and patterns of reciprocity.
Mark Villarreal, James Madison University (BA), human-building interactions & intelligent infrastructure in campus settings.
Kelly Summers (MS), mobile phones and women's empowerment in East Africa. Current position with the Environmental Protection Agency.
David Fox (MS), spatial patterns of pastoralist settlement in East Africa. Current position with the Vermont Center for Geographic Information.
Ashley Lewis (MS), mobile phones and human-wildlife conflict in East Africa. Current positions with the Blacksburg Volunteer Rescue Squad and the National Awareness Tracking School.
I am actively looking for qualified and enthusiastic new students to start in the fall of 2023. Currently my projects involve: (1) gendered social networks and mobile phones in northern Tanzania (yes - the pics on the site); and (2) digital strategies to examine education spaces in North America (see the BUILD project above). If you are interested in working with me, or simply discussing the prospect of graduate school at Virginia Tech, please contact me by email with your interests and CV and we can set up a time to talk.
I ate locally for a year in 2008 and blogged about it for The Splendid Table on American Public Media. Check out my interview below (beginning around 21:20).